连云港| 竹山| 雄县| 头屯河| 襄汾| 繁昌| 平阳| 陈巴尔虎旗| 北海| 泾源| 洛浦| 布尔津| 莱阳| 武宁| 武冈| 召陵| 平利| 武进| 宁南| 平塘| 洪江| 洱源| 大方| 宣汉| 井陉| 松潘| 洛宁| 扎兰屯| 唐山| 连州| 四方台| 喀喇沁左翼| 福海| 浚县| 莒南| 富平| 东海| 离石| 晋城| 宁城| 马尔康| 旬邑| 饶阳| 汉南| 昌江| 下花园| 岑巩| 沙洋| 衡山| 磐安| 永州| 得荣| 萨迦| 昌宁| 济南| 覃塘| 淅川| 营口| 云南| 遵义县| 舒城| 洛南| 景洪| 雷山| 陈巴尔虎旗| 聂拉木| 前郭尔罗斯| 连江| 梓潼| 贾汪| 邹城| 西峰| 菏泽| 武安| 下花园| 古丈| 隆昌| 松桃| 咸宁| 易县| 荥阳| 阳泉| 召陵| 北戴河| 景东| 常州| 阳朔| 石渠| 凭祥| 黄石| 枞阳| 永靖| 龙陵| 伊宁市| 仁怀| 横县| 图木舒克| 吕梁| 岳池| 金沙| 泗阳| 周至| 大渡口| 南安| 乌马河| 巴彦| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 海宁| 建平| 潮安| 玉溪| 信丰| 嵩县| 湟源| 浙江| 宿州| 蓟县| 阎良| 吉木乃| 江陵| 洛隆| 图木舒克| 黄平| 开封县| 宜秀| 白城| 和静| 临西| 农安| 湟源| 鹤壁| 高县| 昂昂溪| 磐石| 河口| 福建| 无锡| 盘县| 定兴| 通辽| 晴隆| 沈丘| 平坝| 东丰| 内乡| 沅江| 海口| 萍乡| 永新| 调兵山| 潜江| 清流| 万安| 新宾| 盐田| 郑州| 岳普湖| 沾化| 遂溪| 蓬莱| 阜新市| 玉屏| 凭祥| 东安| 勐腊| 长春| 泰来| 桦南| 唐县| 肥东| 略阳| 铜鼓| 甘洛| 信阳| 博兴| 江都| 梅河口| 通化市| 富平| 芜湖市| 唐河| 青冈| 满城| 介休| 扶风| 阿拉善左旗| 绥棱| 蠡县| 札达| 米易| 武邑| 白山| 临清| 延津| 华山| 石泉| 恩施| 乐山| 平邑| 团风| 沂水| 友谊| 无极| 汝南| 库伦旗| 花莲| 桂平| 北戴河| 汤阴| 嘉兴| 永兴| 洛隆| 延长| 临高| 新兴| 精河| 琼中| 张掖| 洪泽| 梁子湖| 青海| 猇亭| 张家界| 墨竹工卡| 鹰潭| 张掖| 无棣| 神池| 四子王旗| 云溪| 嵩明| 济源| 阿克塞| 吴川| 滑县| 中宁| 仁化| 中卫| 禄丰| 乌兰| 勃利| 汨罗| 阳原| 福山| 剑阁| 南华| 庆安| 天祝| 秦安| 漾濞| 遂平| 三亚| 崂山| 纳雍| 岗巴| 丹徒| 乌兰察布| 高平| 锦屏| 金湾| 云安| 鲁山| 巨野|

朝阳区文联组织艺术家赴昆明开展文艺交流活动

2019-09-19 02:57 来源:新华网

  朝阳区文联组织艺术家赴昆明开展文艺交流活动

  AmanstandsatEmersonsnewMeasurementTechnologyCenterinBeijing,whichopenedlastNovembertoserveitsautomationsolutionsbusinessinChinaandacrossAsia.[Photo/ChinaNewsService]EditorsNote:Thisyearmarksthe40thanniversaryofChinaaniesfortheirviewsonthecountrystothegrowthofChinasenergyindustryPleaseusethreewordstodescribeChina,formandopening-uppolicy40yearsagoThe40yearsofreformandopening-uphavemadeChinamoremodern,moreinternationalizedandmoredeveloped,ssecond-largesteconomyanditsimageasoneoftheworldaandfortheChinesepeople,qualitydevelopment,fromatraditionallow-costlabormanufacturingcountrytoamoreinnovation-based,talent-oriented,sthebiggestchallengeChinafacestodayandhowcanthecountryovercomeitNowthatChinahasenteredaphaseofslowergrowth,oneofthemainchallengeswillbetomaintainitssuccessfultransitiontoaconsumer-oriented,,includingthe13thFive-YearPlan(2016-20),,thegovernmentsdevelopmentstrategytoincreaseregionaltradeandencouragebroaderglobaleconomiccooperation,iscreatingenormousbusinessopportunitiesthroughoutAsia,nologyinnovation,infrastructure,education,finance,senvironmentalanddevelopmentchallenges,Emersonisworkingwithindustryandgovernmentagenciestopromotetheefficientuseofenergy,includingimprovedenergyefficiencystandards,developingtechnologiesandsolutionstoboostcleanerenergyproduction,late1970s,Emersonwasoneofsixglobalcompaniesinvited,Emersonwastheonlycompanythatwaswillingtoenteralicensingdealtosupplytec,wearecommittedt,000employfter40yearsofreformandopening-up,Chineseenterpriseshaveundergonetransformationsintermsofsize,structure,ness,,wecompletedastrategicportfoliorealignmentprogram,whichenablesustofocusonourtwocorebusinesses-automationsolutions,andcommercialandresidentialsolutions-tobuildonourstrengthsandleadership,tinuousresearchanddevelopmentandinnovation,andasroleintheworldtodayOverthepast40years,Chinahastransformedfromanundevelopednationtoar,ChinasnatssustainedeconomicgrowthhastranslatedintoincreasingvisibilityontheworldstageandPrsdevelopmentoverthisperiodhasnotonlymadeitapowerfulengineofworldeconomicgrowth,butalsocontributedtotherecover,Chinaactivelypromotesthelinkingofdevelopmentstrategiesofallnationsacrosstheregionandbeyond,anditishelpingtoboostlocalemploymentande,itisalsoimportanttoenforceintellectualpropertyrightsande,intellectualpropertyrightsp,wearealsointerestedinChinasreformanddevelopmentactivitiesinkeyareassuchasconservationofenergy,reductionofcarbonemissions,improvementofairquality,sustainablefoodwastemanagement,sexperiencesandpracticesbeusedtosolveglobalproblemsThegovernments13thFive-YearPlanlaysdownthestrategyandpathwayforChina,urbanizationandsocialwelfare,environmentalprotectionandtalentdevelo,Chinahassetitsownambitiousdevelopmentgoals,governmentistakingconcertedactionstsnewgreenp,wefeelthatifanenterprisecanwininChina,,Chinaisoneofourmostimportantmarketsandmanyofourkeyproductsare,,,withitsnewterminal,,Ihavewitnessedthespeedofthenationstransformation,,whatprogressinotherfieldshaveyouwitnessedinChinainthepast40yearsOneexamplethathasbeenextremelyimpressiveisChina,dams,,thelengthofChinashighwaysandhigh-speedrailmileagearerankedNo1intheworldandthenationalhigh-speedrailway,whichdidnotexist10yearsago,isnowmoreextensivethantheEuropeanUnionstransportationisindeedthespeedofChina!中央电视台《新闻联播》播音员罗京、李瑞英宣读公约内容《公约》倡议,各缔约单位应共同遵守国家关于互联网文化建设和管理的法律、法规和政策,依法开展互联网视听节目服务,积极传播健康有益、符合社会主义道德规范、体现时代发展和社会进步、弘扬民族优秀文化传统的互联网视听节目,包括影视剧、动画片,共同抵制腐朽落后思想文化,不传播渲染暴力、色情、赌博、恐怖等危害未成年人身心健康、违背社会公德、损害民族优秀文化传统的互联网视听节目;应尊重和保护著作权人和互联网视听节目服务单位的合法权益,创造和维护公平有序的网络视听节目版权环境;应建立互联网视听节目信息的行业共享互助机制,保持信息的有效沟通,共同净化网上空间,形成共建共享的精神家园。

sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.[PhotobyZhuXingxin/ChinaDaily]Comparedtoothertraditionalembroideries,suchastheworksfromSuzhouandHunan,Beijingembroideryisknownforitsrichhuedcolors,,,thecraftswerelistedasanationalintangibleculturalheritage,,abrandspecializedinmakingcouturedesignswithChineseembroideries.Chinawilltakeaslewofincentivestofurtherboostimportsinordertodrivedomesticindustrialupgradingandbettermeettheincreasinglydiversifiedconsumptiondemandsofpeople,theStateCoun,PresidentXiJinpingannouncedthatChinawillexpandimportsandachievegreaterbalanceininternationalpaymentsunderthecurrentaccount,awillactivelyexpandimportsandlowerimporttariffsongoodssuchasautomobilesandeverydayconsumerproducts,topromoteindustrialupgradingandmerofgoodsfornineconsecutiveyears,tradeinservices,lyconsumergoods,medicine,aswellasnursingandrehabilitationfacilities,tionalproceduresandunreasonablepriceincreases,,andimportsofproducerservicescoveringresearchanddesign,tradelogistics,consultingservices,,wiromotingtheAuthorizedEconomicOperator(AEO),,acreditinformationsysteminforeigntradeaswellasenhancedintellectualpropertyrightsprotectionareneedewroundofhigh-standardopening-up,toeconomicrestructuring,andtoeconomictransformationandhigh-qualitydevelopment,,,

  AglasscircularbridgeinFuxiShantouristattractionwillopenonJune16aftereightmonthsconstructioninXinmicity,CentralChinasHenanprovince,June12,2018.[Photo/VCG]WorldslongestglasscircularbridgeinFuxiShantouristattractionwillopentothepublicaftereightmonthsconstructioninXinmicity,CentralChinasHenanprovince,onJune16,"skywalk".Itis360metershigh,andextends30metersoutofthecliffthatisnearlyninemeterslongerthantheglassbridgeintheColoradoGrandCanyonintheUnitedStates,whichisclaimedtobethe"EighthWonderoftheWorld".百姓得救了,桃花女却倒下了。

  ContestantsparticipateinacosmetologytestattheChinaSkillsCompetition,thenationalselectioneventforthe45thWorldSkillsCompetition,/CHINADAILYWorldSkillsInternationalisimpressedwiththepoliticalengagementandenthusiasmthatChinahasshownforhostingthe46thWorldSkillsCompetitionin2021,aseniorofficialofthenonprofitmembershipassociationsaidonWednesday."ThatpoliticalcommitmentgavegreatcomforttousinWorldSkillsInternationalthateverythingthatneedstobedonetomakethe46thWorldSkillsCompetitionasuccessinShanghaiwilltakeplaceandwillbedone,"saidSimonBartley,,teachers,expertsandthegeneralpublic"growseverytimeIvisit"China,hesaid."Icannotimaginewhatenthusiasmwillbelikein2021."BartleymadetheremarksatanewsconferenceduringtheongoingChinaSkillsCompetition2018-m46delegationsacrossthecountrywhowillcompetein34eventsincludingautomobiletechnology,ou,Guangdongprovince,,Bartleysaid:"IbelieveitsabsolutelycriticalthatthevocationalcollegesinChinarespondtotherequirementsofthenumber,skilllevelandgeographicalavailabilityoflaborinthefuture."Itsalsoimportanttobringinthebesttalentintheworldtosharetheirtechniques,andtempertheworkethicatschoolwithfun,humorandenthusiasm,s,withabout27millionstudentsexploringanddevelopingawiderangeofskillsatmorethan12,,ministerofHumanResourcesandSocialSecurity,saidinhisaddressduringtheeventsopeningceremonyonTuesdaynsnationalselectioncompetitionforWorldSkillsonforthe45thWorldSkillsCompetitiontobeheldin2019inRussia,andforanall-roundre,WorldSkillsInternational,thecityofShanghaiandtheMinistryofHumanResourcesandSocia,the46theditionoftheWorld-SkillseventwillbeheldinShanghaifromSept22to27,,whichwillofferfreeaccesstothepublic,willdisplaythehistoryandnewdevelopmentsofWorld-Skills,helppromotethecooperationandexchangeofvariousskillsandeducateinternationalyouths.,XiJinping,then-PartychiefofZhejiangprovince,visitedYucunvillageinAnji,smovetocloseminesthatpollut,clearwatersandlushmountainsthemselvesmeangold,,callingclearwatersandlu,Huzhou,andruralresidentswereconfrontedwithadirty,,HuzhoujoinedZhejiangprovincesactionplseconomyhasshiftedtofamilyfarms,,($)seconomicboom,,,,asmallcitywith460,000registeredlocalresidents,nowboasts13academicworkstations,,watertreatment,solidwastetreatment,,Huzhouhasblazedthetrailforgreenandecologicaldevelopment,andisspreadingitsexperiencetootherprovincesinChina.

MoviegoersreadfilmsynopsesonawalldisplayatacinemainNankaidistrict,Tianjin.[PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily]Withastringofdomesticblockbusters,Chinese-languagemoviesscoredanewhighattheboxofficeinthefirsthalfofthisyear,increasingnearly80percentyear-on-year,($)asofMonday,,saidLiGuoqi,deputydirectoroftheadministration,,thefestival-whichrunsfromWednesdaytoSundayinQingdao,Shandongprovince,gatherseightSCOmemberstate,,,Chinahadmorethan10,000cinemasinurbanareas,with55,sscreencount,about10,000morethaninNorthAmerica,included48,389,or88percent,thatare3-Dscreens,accordingtotheadministration.

  AustriasDominicThiemreactsduringthefinalagainstSpainsRafaelNadalatthe2018FrenchOpenTournamentinParis,FranceonJune10,2018.[Photo/Agencies]Thiemsavethreebreakpointstoholdhisserviceintothethirdset,butthe"KingofClay",,andmanagedtoconverthisfifthmatchpointonThiem,Nadalwassettoretainh,whowonon20occasions,ontheall-timelistformostGrandSlammenssinglestitles."Letmeenjoythistitle,"Nadalsaidwithasmile.""Iwouldlovetohave20likeRogerinthefutureorevenmore,butbeinghonest,it,"headded.

  除了包虫病防控,十二届全国政协医卫领域的委员们也积极履职,探索健康扶贫的路径,如为基层贫困地区培养带不走的医疗队、为贫困眼病患者建立健康档案等。(L-R)SomalianDeputyMinisterofHumanitarianAffairsandDisasterManagementElmiOmarAinsane,UNICEFSomaliaRepresentativeStevenLauwerier,andChineseAmbassadortoSomaliaQinJianposeforphotosduringadonationceremonyinMogadishu,Somalia,onNov21,2017.[Photo/Xinhua]MOGADISHU-ChineseAmbassadortoSomaliaQinJianonTuesdayvisitedChina-fundedhealthfacilityinMogadishusWadjirdistrictwhereabout15,sfund(UNCIEF)benefitedfrom$,QinreiteratedhisgovernmentssupporttoSomalipeople,addingthatBeijinghasalsogivendonationsworth$lyutilizingthemoney."WearesupportingSomalidevelopmentprojects,humanitarianassistance,peaceandalsogivingoutscholarships,"ego,500childrenwhowereinitiallysufferingfrommalnutritionsinceinception."WeareveryhappyandproudofourrelationshipwiththeChinesegovernmentthatwillgoalongwayinhelpingsavelivesofchildreninthecountry,"hesaida,aMedicalCoordinatoratthehealthfacility,thenewlyrefurbishedcentertreated35,356childrenlastyear."Wescreenedatotalof34,784children,1,422childrenweretreatedwithseveremalnutritionand74werehospitalizedlastyear,"Ahmedsaid.

  它的发展经过了4个时期,菩提达摩和六祖惠能属于早期,明朝中晚期是成熟期,称中期,后随着净土宗的兴起,禅净合一,成为晚期。

  AllanGabor,managingdirectorofperformancematerialsofMerckChina.[Photo/VCG]EditorsNote:Thisyearmarksthe40thanniversaryofChinaaniesfortheirviewsonthecountry:IthastakenChinajust40yearstobecometheworld,,:Chinawouldno,ChinasentryintotheInternationalCouncilforHarmonizationwillgreatlyimprovei:formandopening-upprGree,theyhavenotjustgrowninsize,,Ivealsoseensignificantimprovementsinpeopleshealth,,,thecountryhassetupmedicinepilotzonesinBoao,Hainanprovince,,whatprogressinotherfieldshaveyouwitnessedinChinain,theyarereallylookingtoexpressthemselvesnset:ChinasFive-YearPlanmechanismhasprovedsuccessful,,,thefasttakeoffine-commercecouldfacilitatetradeinremoteareasandthereasthebiggestchallenge,themortalityratefromchronicdiseasesisstillhigh,suressuchasopeningoursecond-largestdrugplantinNantong,Jiangsuprovince,whichproducespharmaceuticalsonthecountry,agetoprovidemoreinnovativeandhigh-qualitymedicineandhealthcareproductsthatimprovepeople,wehavedrugshelpingdiabetes,,wesupportthedevelopmentoforganiclight-emittingdiodetechnologytohelpflatpaneldi,wehelpourcustomersinC,wedontjustbenefitfromChina,,wehaveteamedupwithomesticcompaniesaremovingupinmanygoodways,,sspartners,asisexemplifiedinasroleintheworldtodayTraditionally,-politically,:WenowleveragetalentedpeopleinChinatocontributetoourglobalstrategies,,PresidentXiJinpingintroducedahostofpowerfulmeasurestofurtheropentheworldandresponsibilitiesflowdownthroughdiffe,mpressedbyhowthenationmajorincidentslikethebattleagainstsev,vibrant,innovativeandinclusive.TheskylineofShenzhen,SouthChinasGuangdongprovinceisseenonJuly22,2017.[Photo/VCG]ThesouthernmetropolisofShenzhenhasjoinedothercitiesinafiercecompetitiontoattracttalentbysimplifyingtheprocedureforuniversitygraduatestoobtainlocalhouseholdregistration,,graduateswillbeabletosubmitapplicationsonlinebyuploadingtheireducationcertificatesandpersonalinformationinsteadofgoingtohumanresourceofficesinperson,authenticityandapplicantsqualifications,,itygraduatesanddealwiththeirhukoumatters,enhancingworkefficiencyandincreasingShenzhensattractivenessfortalent,,slatestefforttoattrac,thecitysho,,morethanhalfofwhichwillbedesignatedfortalentedworkers,edforthehousingstartingthisyear,,theaveragepriceforanewhomeinMaywas54,111yuan($8,445)persquaremeter,downj,aresearcherattheGuangdongAcademyofSocialSciences,saidtheintroductionofthenewhukoupolicyisaneffectivewayforShenzhentoretainandattracttalent,giventhehighcostoflivinginthecity."Formanyfreshgraduates,theprimaryissueisthehukoubecausethedocumentiscloselyrelatedtotherightsandsocialservicestheycanenjoy-forexample,buyinghomesorgettingmedicaltreatment,",asenioratShenzhenUniversity,saidalthoughhukouisanimportantfactortoconsider,themainconcernw,includingBeijing,Shanghai,ChengduandXian,havealsoofferedpreferentialpoliciestowoograduates.

  ”王成祥建议,把独立非盈利的卫生行业单位从差额拨款事业单位变成全额拨款的事业单位。

  30余家媒体对本届论坛进行了全程报道,100余家网站发布了论坛新闻,70家网络媒体对论坛专题网站进行了链接。

  PresidentXiJinpingpresidesoveraplenarysessionofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,"self-centered,shortsightedandcloseddoorpolicies".LIXUEREN/XINHUAChinatoestablish$,offerstotrain2,000lawenforcementofficersforallSCOcountriesPresidentXiJinpingcalledonSundayforjointeffortswithShanghaiCooperationOrganizationcountriestobuildanopenworldeconomyandreject"self-centered,shortsightedandclosed-doorpolicies".XimadetheremarkinaspeechhedeliveredattheplenarysessionoftheSCOSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince."WeshouldupholdWTOrulesandsupportthemultilateraltradingsystemsoastobuildanopenworldeconomy,",tradeprotectionismandthebacklashagainstglobalizationaretakingonnewforms,,Xiannouncedanumberofmajormeasu($)equivalentspeciallendingfacilitywithintheframeworkoftheInterbankConsortiumoftheSCO,,000lawenforcementofficersforallSCOcoun,Chinawillprovide3,000trainingopportunitiesforthehumanresourcesdevelopmentofSCOmemberstates,engyun2weathersatellites,ibutiontopeaceanddevelopmentintheregion,ancesystem,andwork,thegrowingcallforamorejustandequitableinternationalordermustbeheeded,Xisaid,addingthatgreaterdemocracyininternationalrelationshasbecomeanunstoppabletrendofthetimes."TheShanghaiSpirit,transcendingoutdatedconceptssuchasclashofcivilizationsColdWarandzero-summentality,hasopenedanewchapterinthehistoryofinternationalrelations,andgainedincreasingendorsementoftheinternationalcommunity,",SCOcountrieshaveforgedaconstructivepartnershipfeaturingnon-alliance,non-confrontationandnottargetinganythirdparty,nd40percentofitspopulation.OlegBerezhnykh,areporterwithRussiaandChinamagazine,poseswithacopyofChinaDailyatthemediacenterinQingdaoforthe18thShanghaiCooperationSummitJune9,2018.[PhotobyLuoJingxiangzi/]ForOlegBerezhnykh,areporteratRussiaandChinamagazine,thisisthesecondtimehescoveredtheSCOsummitheldinChina."NowthenumberofthemembersoftheSCOhasincreased,formeitsveryinterestinechduringtheopeningceremony,",Bersalsointerestingtolearnaboutthesummitsdecisionsoneconomicintegration,headded.

  

  朝阳区文联组织艺术家赴昆明开展文艺交流活动

 
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科举如何打破“阶层固化”:从一套南宋魁星盘说起(图)

sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.[PhotobyZhuXingxin/ChinaDaily]Comparedtoothertraditionalembroideries,suchastheworksfromSuzhouandHunan,Beijingembroideryisknownforitsrichhuedcolors,,,thecraftswerelistedasanationalintangibleculturalheritage,,abrandspecializedinmakingcouturedesignswithChineseembroideries.


来源:文汇报

科举对社会的影响是全方位的,自然也包括婚姻与家庭。宋代进士地位大异于唐代,只要唱名及第,就能“释褐”授官,圆上民谚说的“有官便有妻,有妻便有钱,有钱便有田”的富贵梦。于是,科举制给择婿婚配也竖起了新标杆。

科举对社会的影响是全方位的,自然也包括婚姻与家庭。宋代进士地位大异于唐代,只要唱名及第,就能“释褐”授官,圆上民谚说的“有官便有妻,有妻便有钱,有钱便有田”的富贵梦。于是,科举制给择婿婚配也竖起了新标杆。

科举制促成了士大夫官僚的崛起,构成唐宋社会变迁的主题之一。宋代奉行“取士不问家世”,“一切考诸试篇”的原则,向全社会各阶层开启了科考及第、出仕为官的门禁。诚如南宋戴表元所说:“名卿士大夫,十有八九,出于场屋科举。”有人统计过文天祥为状元的宝祐四年(1256)那榜进士,来自平民家庭与出于官员家庭的人数比约为7比3。倘将这一数据与范仲淹断齑画粥、欧阳修欧母画荻等经典故事相匹配,确实印证了贫寒之士由科举入仕而终成名臣的现实可能性,彰显出宋代科举的相对公平性,以致有学者把宋代称作“科举社会”。

自太祖朝起,宋代就实行解试、省试与殿试的三级考试制。士子先在地方解试中取得举人资格,再赴中央省试去考进士。省试录取后还有皇帝殿试环节,旨在将取士权收归人主,杜绝唐代那种座主考生的私门关系。惟其如此,宋代殿试虽流于程序,一干仪式却庄重荣耀,让中举进士亲身感受到皇恩浩荡。首先是唱名赐第,也称“传胪”,由司仪官在殿上从头名状元起依次高声唱名,传达至殿外听榜的省试考生。南宋杨万里有诗道:

殿上胪传第一声,殿前拭目万人惊。名登龙虎黄金榜,人在烟霄白玉京。

诗人逼真渲染了状元郎被唱名时那种无与伦比的荣誉感与睥睨一世的超爽劲,与民间传诵的《神童诗》颇有异曲同工之妙:“玉殿传金榜,君恩赐状头。英雄三百辈,随我步瀛洲。”也难怪鼎鼎名臣韩琦敢于轻忽嗤笑赫赫名将狄青:“东华门外以状元唱出者才是好儿!”进士及第唱名之日,即脱下布衣,称为“释褐”,赐赏袍、笏,象征脱离了平民,踏上了仕途。接着,皇帝御赐新科进士簪花聚宴,表示祝贺。《钱塘遗事》说,登科及第有“五荣”:“两觐天颜,一荣也;胪传天陛,二荣也;御宴赐花,都人叹美,三荣也;布衣而入,绿袍而出,四荣也;亲老有喜,足慰倚门之望,五荣也。”总之,即便平民子弟,通过寒窗苦读,一旦高中进士,也能跻身官僚队伍。科举制就这样对整个社会潜移默化起着价值导向,以致朱熹也拿孔圣人来调侃:“居今之世,使孔子复生,也不免应举。”

然而,应举之路并不顺溜,连大词人柳永也屡战屡败,蹭蹬十余年而功名无望,大发牢骚:“黄金榜上,偶失龙头望。明代暂遗贤,如何向?”据欧阳修说,解试通过率“百人取一人”。省试举人与录取进士的人数比,宋太宗朝算高的,也达65比1。可见“秉笔者如林,趋选者如云”,但三级考试一路闯关,最终蟾宫折桂的幸运儿,纵非万里挑一,却也相差不远。尽管科举考选绝非通途,但“朝为读书郎,暮登天子堂”,寒素之家若想改换门楣,官宦之族倘欲世代簪缨,除去金榜题名,别无可行之路。

科举对社会的影响是全方位的,自然也包括婚姻与家庭。宋代进士地位大异于唐代,只要唱名及第,就能“释褐”授官,圆上民谚说的“有官便有妻,有妻便有钱,有钱便有田”的富贵梦。于是,科举制给择婿婚配也竖起了新标杆。无论官场,抑或民间,可以不那么在意门第,却极端看重新科进士的光环。为女择婿与金榜题名的挂钩方式,大体有三种类型。一是榜下择婿。这种方式类似货真价实的现货交易,相对放心踏实。王安石有诗云:“却忆金明池上路,红裙争看绿衣郎”;苏轼也有诗说:“囊空不办行春马,眼眩行看择婿车”。说的都是每逢殿试发榜日,及第进士“释褐”穿上了绿官袍,达官富家争相出动“择婿车”,甚至带上女儿,赶去金明池物色新科进士,而金榜题名的进士也往往嘚瑟着待价而沽。二是榜前择婿。这种交易风险较大,类似当下股市上买潜力股,须有精准无误的预判力。北宋名臣杜衍少时“贫甚,佣书以自资”,富豪相里氏看好他,先嫁女儿给他,不久果然殿试唱名第四。三是榜前约定,榜后成婚。即事先约定:只有金榜及第,才能完婚成亲,否则婚约就不算数。这种方式既无榜前择婿的风险,又有榜下择婿的保证,似乎两全其美;却也往往生出悲欢离合等诸多变数,从而成为宋代以降小说戏曲的绝佳素材。三种形式中,以榜前约定榜后成婚最具喜感,即《神童诗》所谓“洞房花烛夜,金榜题名时”,也最符合中国人好事成双的情结。这种世俗心态,虽不乏文献史料可为佐证,但实物史料却寥若星凤而罕见传世。

2016年浙江省博物馆“中兴纪胜:南宋风物观止”特展上,布展的工艺美术品中有福建省邵武市博物馆藏的银鎏金魁星盘盏与江西省博物馆藏新建出土的银鎏金魁星盘,形象展露了“金榜题名洞房花烛”的民俗心态,弥足珍贵而值得一说。

上图为邵武市博物馆藏银鎏金魁星盘盏,左图为该魁星盘盘底。

图为江西省博物馆藏新建出土的银鎏金魁星盘。图片均选自浙江省博物馆编《中兴纪胜:南宋风物观止》(中国书店,2015年版)

关于工艺品的命名,盘、盏毋庸赘言;“银鎏金”指银质鎏金工艺;“魁星”是盘盏图案的主题。魁星即廿八星宿的奎星,后人附会它能主文运,科举制兴起后衍变为专主中举的星宿。据南宋方大琮《铁庵集》,每到解试之年朝廷颁下开科诏,他这支莆田族人就会祈福魁星堂与籍桂堂。魁星堂祭祀魁星,籍桂堂供列着包括方氏在内本地历榜登科名籍,都与科举有关。

邵武馆藏品乃一盘一盏的套具。盘为八角形,盘心为装饰性人物图,右下角錾有一士子赴考前与家中长者揖别,其侧有随行童仆;左上角有一女子在闺楼上俯看着作别场景。杯盏的身与足均呈八角形,盏身外壁八面各分三格,上下格都錾刻装饰性花纹,中格较大,打制出八幅连续画,表现盏心镌刻的《踏莎行》词意。新建出土品的盘心是安放杯盏的菱花形凸棱框(原配杯盏或已亡失),框外盘底则是图案。其右侧一树桂花盛开,隐喻“蟾宫折桂”;树前通衢上一行五人衔尾前来,前行一人捧着喜报;随后两人打旗,一旗上大书“天下状元”;状元骑马执鞭,末一人张伞盖紧随马后;左侧垂柳一带俨然楼居,楼上有女子凭窗眺望。这幅画只是将邵武盘底人物图与邵武盏上连续画聚集在同一画面上,表现的也是菱形框内錾刻的《踏莎行》词意。无独有偶,这首《踏莎行》与邵武盏心的那首词既是同一词牌,文字也大同小异。兹据新建那首为本,校以邵武那首:

足蹑云梯,手攀仙桂,姓名高挂登科记。马前喝道[到]状元来,金鞍玉勒成行缀[对]。

宴罢琼林,醉游花市,此时方显平生志[至]。修书速报凤楼人,这回好个风流婿。

相对说来,新建那首文字准确度较高,邵武那首则有错别字。“行缀”指舞队行列,文意虽不及“行对”准确,但也说得通。这种文字上的错讹,一方面表明打造工匠的识字有限,一方面却透露出这首词在世俗民间的喜闻乐见。

全词意思通俗,一目了然。“足蹑云梯,手攀仙桂”,显然是蟾宫折桂典故的白话化。“姓名高挂登科记”,无非金榜题名换一种说法。登科记始自唐代,宋代也叫“登科录”或“同年录”,是唱名及第后编印的同榜进士名录,现有《绍兴十八年同年小录》与《宝祐四年登科录》传世。“马前喝道状元来,金鞍玉勒成行对”,摹绘出状元跨马赴期集所(也叫状元局)途中的气派。自宋真宗起,特诏状元“给金吾卫士七人清道”,“许出两对引喝”。《武林旧事》记录有新科状元率同榜进士赴期集所时万众空巷的盛况:

骏马快行,各持敕黄于前。黄旗杂沓,多至数十百面,各书诗句于上。自东华门至期集所,豪家贵邸,竟列采幕纵观,其有少年未成家室者,亦往往于此择婿焉。

“马前喝道”是状元特有的宠遇,“余止双控马首”,即第二名以下者只有随从在两边掌控马笼头。成双作对的金鞍玉勒逶迤前行,进士队伍让“庶士倾羡,欢动都邑”。

自宋太宗起,每朝皇帝无不御赐新进士会宴琼林苑,席上还御赐簪花,琼林宴遂为不可或缺的“登科五荣”之一。据《钱塘遗事》,琼林宴毕,进士“退皆簪花乘马而归,都人皆避,以赴御宴回也”。由于放榜例在春日,正是繁花似锦之时,《踏莎行》说“宴罢琼林,醉游花市,此时方显平生志”,勾画的正是状元与进士们在琼林宴后“春风得意马蹄疾,一日看尽长安花”的场景。

“修书速报凤楼人,这回好个风流婿”,无疑是两件工艺品画面聚焦的主题。唐代金榜题名,例以金花帖子通报及第进士家。宋代一般用于解试中举的场合,但民间仍应保留着金榜题名“修书报捷”的风俗,目的同样“一可以还前古之风流,二可以为乡党之美观,三可以杜捷子之纷扰”。“捷子”指私自报捷人,他们无非希图报捷讨赏。“凤楼人”指闺中人,邵武盏上与新建盘中都刻画她在楼头远眺,翘首等待未婚夫或夫婿送来及第的捷报。仅凭词意与画面,很难断定这位“凤楼人”究竟是榜前择婿,还是榜前约婚,留下了让人想象的艺术空间。若是前者,南宋倒也有动人的故事。婺州举子刘鼎臣将赴行在临安省试,妻子执手送别时赠以自制彩花一枝,并附上自作词云:

金屋无人夜剪缯,宝钗翻过齿痕轻。临行执手殷勤送,衬与萧郎两鬓青。

听嘱付,好看承,千金不抵此时情。明年宴罢琼林晚,酒面微红相映明。

这首《鹧鸪天》抓住少妇拿着彩花在夫君鬓边比试的分袂场面,千言万语说不尽离别之情,千叮万嘱这彩花是让你金榜及第后簪戴的,且待明年迎来宴罢琼林簪花归里的夫君,也不枉独守闺房的一片深情了。

然而,倘若细品《踏莎行》的两句词意,似乎后者可能性更大,喜剧感也更强。榜前约婚,经过望眼欲穿的煎熬等待,今天终于梦想成真。“修书速报凤楼人,这回好个风流婿”,妙就妙在用来刻画任何一方的心态都称得上贴切入微。可以是状元郎一方“修书速报”,不无自得地让报信者先去告知“凤楼人”,我这回可是货真价实的“风流婿”!也可以理解为“凤楼人”的“倚门之望”,企盼状元郎高中后,千万莫忘“修书速报”我这“凤楼人”,哎——,这下你可真个成为我的“风流婿”啦!

笔者遍查中华书局版《全宋词》及其《补辑》有名姓与无名氏的作者名下,均未见收录这首《踏莎行》,复蒙《文汇学人》编辑搜“中华经典古籍库”告知,在《全宋词》附录《元明小说话本中依托宋人词》里录有雷同之作。此词先后见于《清平山堂话本·简帖和尚》与《古今小说·赵伯昇茶肆遇仁宗》,分别托名主人公宇文绶与赵伯昇金榜题名后所作。唯“宴罢琼林”,两篇话本俱作“宴罢归来”;“醉游花市”,《简帖和尚》作“恣游花市”,而《赵伯昇》作“醉游街市”。据小说戏曲史家许政扬说,《简帖和尚》“文学史家公认为宋代话本”;而曲艺史家陈汝衡的《宋代说书史》也将《赵伯昇》定为宋元话本。合理的解释是,这首所谓“元明小说话本”的假托之作,确是宋代众口流传的民间词佚作,所以才被书会才人趁手编入话本。这一推断,可以拉南宋宝祐元年(1253)榜状元姚勉出来作证。他的《雪坡集》收入及第后所作《贺新郎》,有小序说:

尝不喜旧词所谓“宴罢琼林,醉游花市,此时方显男儿志”,以为男儿之志岂止在“醉游花市”而已哉!

所引旧词之句正与上引《踏莎行》吻合,有力印证了这首词风行一时,故而这位新状元也谙记在心。当然,他在词序里明确表示不全同意这首词的价值观:

此说殊未然也,必志于致君泽民而后可。尝欲作数语易之而未暇,癸丑叨忝误恩,方圆前话,以为他日魁天下者之劝,非敢自衒也。夫以天子之所亲擢,苍生之所属望,当如之何而后可以无负之哉。友人潘月崖首求某书之,是其志亦不在彼而在于此矣。故书不敢辞。

姚勉认为,金榜题名,释褐为官,应该有志于“致君泽民”,念念不忘“苍生之所属望,当如之何而后可以无负之”,不能一味在显摆与荣耀中自我陶醉。姚勉秉承了“为生民立命”的宋儒思想,出仕后也难能地维持了士大夫官僚的正面形象。姚勉的《贺新郎·及第作》也描写了殿试唱榜到前往状元局的全过程,故不妨也迻录如次,以与前引《踏莎行》对证比较:

月转宫墙曲。六更残钥鱼声亮,纷纷袍鹄。黼座临轩清跸奏,天仗缀行森肃。望五色、云浮黄屋。三策忠嘉亲赐擢,动龙颜,人立班头玉。胪首唱,众心服。

殿头赐宴宫花簇,写新诗、金笺竞进,绣床争蹙。御渥新沾催进谢,一点恩袍先绿。归袖惹,天香芬馥。玉勒金鞯迎夹路,九街人,尽道苍生福。争拥入,状元局。

如果说,姚勉状元词里“九街人,尽道苍生福”慨然自许地揭明了士大夫精英的价值观念,那么邵武盏与新建盘上状元词里“这回好个风流婿”则形象直白地投射出普通民众的思想心态。金克木认为,思想史有两套,“一套是书本里的名家著作”,“另一套是书本里没有专著的普通人的思想”,他呼吁在关注著作家的思想史同时,尤应发掘普通人的思想史,然后“希望有人能把两套合一来研究并写作中国哲学史或中国思想史”。两件工艺品上錾刻的状元及第报信归里的画面与那首广为流播的民间词,正是南宋普通人在科举及第上思想心态的真实折光。

(作者为上海师范大学人文学院教授)  

[责任编辑:李志明 PN032]

责任编辑:李志明 PN032

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